Yogyakarta—When addressing the issue about integration of knowledge, we must first discuss the meaning of Islam, in relation to knowledge and wisdom, Law of Nature Vs Law of Allah (Sunnatullah), Islamic Cosmology and the Concept of Ulil-Albab, Ulul-Albab, Ulul – Absar and Ulu – Nuha, which has been enshrined in Al-Qur’an. Afterwards, the integration of Islamic sciences that was previously discussed and formulated in various theories of knowledges such as that has been done by Ibn Khaldun, Al-Farabi, Ibn al-Hytham to mention among others will further be explored.
The previous explanation was delivered by Dr. Mat Rofa, Senior Lecturer at Department of Mathematics, Universiti Putra Malaysia on July 8, 2018, the first day of 2nd ITYIELD in Meeting Hall, AR Fakhruddin A, 5th floor. This agenda was held because of the collaboration between International Institute of Islamic Thought (IIIT) and International Program for Islamic Economics and Finance (IPIEF), Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta.
He then emphasized the classification of knowledge based on Islamic epistemology, saying: “In Islamic epistemology, cognitive knowledge is classified into three main categories: metaphysics, mathematics and natural sciences. The classification in Islamic epistemology is generally described by terms of the intellectual sciences (al-‘ulum al-‘aqliyyah) and the transmitted sciences (al-‘ulum al-naqliyyah). The transmitted sciences are solely originated from the Qur’an. Mathematics and natural sciences are classified under the intellectual sciences. In the intellectual sciences, metaphysic is the ultimate destination for all branches of sciences in the classification. In this scheme, technology is referred as a technical output of the fundamental natural sciences.”
However, the knowledge which is acquired from the Western worldview would be different than that derived from Islamic worldview. Dr. Mat Rofa said that a highly different princicple between Islam and the West could be seen from the general principle of Causality—every cause must have an effect—that was refuted by Al-Ghazali who argued that the connection between both are not necessary, rather it is only habitual connection.
Dr. Mat Rofa added, saying: “Descartes believed in causality principle: Although, in mechanists’ point of view, God played His part in creation of heavens and earth in the early six days but then the cosmos behaved in the same way as an automatic machine in its daily course without any divine interference. The rotating nature of galaxies in the macro world is to be compared to the micro world of sub-atom structure which revolves in the same way, the same orientation and proportional order. This is not merely part of so-called law of nature but indeed, it is to my humble interpretation, it is part of Law of God. It shows the existence of ONE AND ONLY God, the Creator of the universe, great and small creatures, macro and micro worlds. The uniform law that governs the earth and the heavens shows that the existence of the Unique Creator, Allah the Almighty.”
Finally, he concluded that in the light of positivism developed in the western paradigm, the metaphysical realm of the knowledge is totally eliminated thus decreasing the ethical domain of modern world. The science is becoming value free. Hence, Islamic paradigm is needed to be in the model of integrated development of the ummah: physically and spiritually. In the case of higher education system, since most of books taught in the university are written in the Western Paradigm, the new text books writing for firter reform is of paramount importance [Aw]